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Types of Navigation Aids

Flight inspection navigation aids are composed of:

  1. Aviation radio communication stations.
  2. Very high frequency Omnidirectional Range (VOR) stations are aircraft navigation aids that provide azimuth information to aircraft by transmitting a 360-degree radio signal around the communication station.
  3. Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) stations are aircraft navigation aids that measure the distance between the communication station and the aircraft’s position.
  4. The Instrument Landing System (ILS) is an aircraft navigation aid which aids and assists pilots to land an aircraft in low visibility conditions. The system is comprised of the following stations:
    • Localizer: a radio transmitter located at the head of the runway on the opposite side to where the aircraft will land. It will submit radio signals to identify the position of the runway center line.
    • Glide slope: a radio transmitter located on the side of the landing path which transmits radio waves to advise pilots of the current glide angle of the aircraft.
    • Marker: The outer marker is a radio transmitter located on the runway centerline approximately 4 miles from the runway threshold. The outer marker sends cone-shaped radio waves into the air. When the aircraft is above the outer marker, a blue light and voice signal in the cockpit will activate to warn the pilot that the aircraft is near the head of the runway and needs to prepare for landing.
    • Marker: The middle marker is a radio transmitter located on the runway centerline approximately 3,500 feet from the runway threshold. It operates similarly to the outer marker; when the aircraft is above the middle marker, an orange light and alert signals in the cockpit will activate to warn the pilot to prepare for landing or a missed approach.
  5. The Non Directional Beacon (NDB) station is an aircraft navigation aid that calculates the angle between the nose of the aircraft and the communication station.
  6. The Aircraft navigation aid radar is an aircraft tracking system used for the purpose of air traffic control in identifying the location of aircraft.
  7. Aircraft navigation visual aids are composed of:
    • PAPI (Precision Approach Path Indicator System), a high intensity light aircraft navigation aid which helps pilots guide their aircraft during the final phases of landing.
    • ALS (Approach Light System), a light aircraft navigation aid installed at the head of the runway to help navigate aircraft accurately onto the runway surface.
  8. The Instrument approach procedure (IAP), standard instrument departure (SID) and standard terminal arrival routes (STAR) instrument flight procedures are patterns for determining flight routes, navigation area, and heights for safe maneuvering.
  9. ADS-B
  10. MLAT