Frequently-Asked-Questions about LHDs

General

Q: What is an LHD?

A: An RVSM Large Height Deviation (LHD) is defined as any vertical deviation of 300 feet (90 m.) or more from the flight level expected to be occupied by the flight. The deviation may be the result of any operational error or technical condition affecting the flight and includes any operational error that causes the aircraft to be at a location (position and/or time) that is unexpected by the controller.

In other words, an LHD occurs when a controller expects an aircraft to be at one location, but the aircraft is actually at another location.

Q: Why States are required to submit LHD report?

A: ICAO Doc9574 RVSM Implementation Manual section 6.4 specifies that ATC authorities are responsible to report LHD for any reason to their responsible RMA for collision risk assessment.

Q: How does an LHD contribute to mid-air collision risk?

A: An aircraft occupies space unexpected by a controller. Not knowing that the space is occupied, the controller may clear another aircraft to that location, which may cause a mid-air collision.

Q: What is the benefit of LHD reporting while it may be perceived as additional workload by some units?

A: Reporting safety significant occurrences is a key process of a good safety management system since it enables an organization to have the necessary information to be able to manage the associated risk. LHDs are considered 'hazards' in the RVSM airspace as they could potentially lead to a catastrophic outcome - a mid-air collision. Do not fall into a trap where we get too comfortable with the risk just because nothing has not happened yet.

To report to the RMA or not

Q: Some states impose flow restrictions by issuing NOTAMs or AFTN service message. If the incoming traffic violates the flow restriction but complies with separation agreed in the LOA, should this incident be reported as an LHD?

A: No. This operational error may be reported internally, but does not need to be reported as an LHD to the RMA.

Q: A controller does not receive a transfer or the appropriate revision of the transfer of an aircraft from the transferring unit, but surveillance system enables the accepting controller to determine the location of the incoming aircraft well before the Transfer-of-Control (TOC) point, allowing the accepting controller to call the transferring controller back to confirm the aircraft's intent. Should this type of occurrences be reported?

A: Yes. Although such occurrences typically do not contribute to the quantitative estimate of risk, these occurrences should still be reported as LHDs to the responsible RMA. Even though the risk has been mitigated, those errors were still made by the transferring ACC unit, meaning that, with proper safety processes, there is still room for improvement. If such occurrences are not reported, then the transferring ACC unit would not have known about these transfer errors. States are strongly encouraged to collaborate with their neighboring ACC to prevent such occurrences in the future.

Q: The transferred SSR code does not match the incoming traffic. The controller sees the incoming traffic, but cannot identify it. Should this be reported?

A: Yes. The RMA will analyze this type of occurrence case by case.

Q: The traffic doesn't arrive at the transferred time. The controller calls the transferring unit to get an updated transferred time. Should this occurrence be reported?

A: Yes.