Frequently-Asked-Questions about LHDs

General

Q: What is an LHD?

A: An RVSM Large Height Deviation (LHD) is defined as any vertical deviation of 300 feet (90 m.) or more from the flight level expected to be occupied by the flight. The deviation may be the result of any operational error or technical condition affecting the flight and includes any operational error that causes the aircraft to be at a location (position and/or time) that is unexpected by the controller.

In other words, an LHD occurs when a controller expects an aircraft to be at one location, but the aircraft is actually at another location.

Q: Why States are required to submit LHD report?

A: ICAO Doc9574 RVSM Implementation Manual section 6.4 specifies that ATC authorities are responsible to report LHD for any reason to their responsible RMA for collision risk assessment.

Q: How does an LHD contribute to mid-air collision risk?

A: An aircraft occupies space unexpected by a controller. Not knowing that the space is occupied, the controller may clear another aircraft to that location, which may cause a mid-air collision.

Q: What is the benefit of LHD reporting while it may be perceived as additional workload by some units?

A: Reporting an LHD is part of safety management system, enabling an organization to identify corrective and preventive actions. In case of LHD events occurring in a high collision risk area, remedial actions requiring inter-state collaboration may be initiated with the help of ICAO regional office and the RMA.

To report to the RMA or not

Q: Some states impose flow restrictions by issuing NOTAMs or AFTN service message. If the incoming traffic violates the flow restriction but complies with separation agreed in the LOA, should this incident be reported as an LHD?

A: No. This operational error may be reported internally, but does not need to be reported as an LHD to the RMA.

Q: A controller does not receive a transfer or the appropriate revision of the transfer of an aircraft from the transferring unit, but surveillance system enables the accepting controller to determine the location of the incoming aircraft well before the Transfer-of-Control (TOC) point, allowing the accepting controller to call the transferring controller back to confirm the aircraft's intent. Should this incident be reported?

A: No. The call-back procedure can be considered a method to circumvent the coordination problem by the accepting unit. If there is a call-back to confirm transfer information, it does not need to be reported as an LHD to the respective RMA. However, ANSPs can report the occurrence internally as evidence for further inter-unit collaboration to prevent such occurrences in the future.

Q: The transferred SSR code does not match the incoming traffic. The controller sees the incoming traffic, but cannot identify it. Should this be reported?

A: Yes. The RMA will analyze this type of occurrence case by case.

Q: The traffic doesn't arrive at the transferred time. The controller calls the transferring unit to get an updated transferred time. Should this occurrence be reported?

A: Yes.